Despite their authoritarian rule, the Ranas launched a number of reforms and modernization measures that had a considerable impact in Nepal. Here are five revolutionary acts committed by the Ranas:

Abolition of Slavery (1924): Slavery was formally abolished in Nepal in 1924, under Prime Minister Chandra Shumsher’s administration. This was a huge social change that bettered the lives of many Nepalis.

Establishment of the First Modern School (1853): Jung Bahadur Rana created Durbar High School, Nepal’s first modern school, in 1853, marking the beginning of formal education in the country.

Construction of infrastructure:

  • Roads and Bridges: The Ranas constructed various roads and bridges to improve communication inside Nepal. Bir Shumsher, for example, was the first to start building modern highways.
  • Rani Pokhari: Prime Minister Jang Bahadur Rana built the famed Rani Pokhari, a historic artificial pond in Kathmandu.

Introduction of Western-style Education: The Ranas founded various schools and universities to promote Western-style education. For example, in 1918, Chandra Shumsher created Tri-Chandra College, Nepal’s first college.

Modernization of the Army: Jung Bahadur Rana and his successors modernised the Nepalese Army by adopting Western military training and equipment.

Public Health Initiatives: The Ranas took initiatives to enhance public health, including as establishing hospitals and implementing vaccination programmes. Bir Hospital, established in 1889, was Nepal’s first public hospital.

Postal System: The introduction of a regular mail system facilitated communication both within and outside the country. This includes the release of Nepal’s first postage stamps.

Legal Reforms: The Ranas implemented a number of legal reforms, including the Muluki Ain (1854), a comprehensive legal code that standardised and codified different parts of Nepal’s civil and criminal laws.

Establishment of Printing Presses: The Ranas developed printing presses, allowing for the creation of books, newspapers, and government documents. This helped the spread of literacy and information.

Economic Development Projects: The Ranas spearheaded a number of economic development initiatives, including the expansion of agriculture, irrigation systems, and trading routes. These programmes intended to improve the country’s economy and self-sufficiency.

While these deeds resulted in great progress, it is crucial to note that they were frequently used to reinforce Rana rule and control over Nepal. Nonetheless, these actions paved the way for the country’s future growth and modernization.


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